The Automation of Syllogistic II. Optimization and Complexity Issues


In the first paper of this series it was shown that any unquantified formula p in the collection MLSSF (multilevel syllogistic extended with the singleton operator and the predicate Finite) can be decomposed as a disjunction of set-theoretic formulae called syllogistic schemes. The syllogistic schemes are satisfiable and no two of them have a model in common, therefore the previous result already implied the decidability of the class MLSSF by simply checking if the set of syllogistic schemes associated with the given formula is empty. In the first section of this paper a new and improved searching algorithm for syllogistic schemes is introduced, based on a proof of existence of a ‘minimum effort’ scheme for any given satisfiable formula in MLSF. The algorithm addressed above can be piloted quite effectively even though it involves backtracking. In the second part of the paper, complexity issues are studied by showing that the class of (∀)o1-simple prenex formulae (an extension of MLS) has a decision problem which is NP-complete. The decision algorithm that proves the membership of this decision problem to NP can be seen as a different decision algorithm for MLS