### Abstract

Although with some yet severe limitations, Physical working Quantum Computers are becoming available for end users. Such devices are based on the rules of Quantum Mechanics, which state that physical systems evolve through unitary transformations. However, as in the classical case, in order to have a model of computation, such unitary evolutions are expressed/approximated inside Quantum Computers in terms of a finite set of one/two qubit operations (i.e., through a universal set of gates). Single qubit gates are fault-tolerant, while the same cannot be said for two qubit gates. Hence, unitary matrices adopted in Quantum Algorithms must be synthesized in terms of this universal set of operations to obtain a quantum circuit. In such synthesis procedure we prefer circuits with minimum number of qubits and with minimum circuit depth. Clifford+T universal set is one of the most adopted in the literature for synthesis. In such set we have 3 single qubit gates and the CNOT, which is a two qubit gate. Many efforts have been directed to devise algorithms that synthesize general unitary matrices into Clifford+T circuits. These algorithms usually tend to optimize circuit depth or eventually the number of T gates. Since two qubit gates are not fault tolerant, in this work we propose an ASP based technique to minimize the number of CNOT gates inside a Clifford+T circuit. Moreover, in real world quantum computers, qubit are usually connected to each other according to some particular topology, thus providing further constraints. Two qubit gates —hence, CNOT gate— can be directly applied only to pair of gates that are connected. Such constraint has to be taken into account during the synthesis of CNOT minimal circuits. We propose an ASP model to solve the problem of synthesizing CNOT minimal circuits under topological constraints. We provide experimental evidence of the scalability of our proposal.

Publication

*AI for Quantum and Quantum for AI 2023*